Вот тут описание исследования, которое я не совсем понимаю.

Each participant completed a questionnaire
assessing how important religion was to them. There
were two experimental conditions: a transcendenceopportunity
condition and a no-transcendenceopportunity
condition. The participants read a newspaper
article describing a drive-by shooting that involved an
infant being killed. In the transcendence-opportunity
condition, participants then filled out a transcendence
measure, which consisted of 6 questions (on a Likert
scale of 1 to 9) about God’s role in the life of people.
They also filled out an “Emotional Reactions
Questionnaire” designed to measure three different
affects: agitation, discomfort, and pity. In the notranscendence-
opportunity condition, participants did not
have the opportunity to fill out the transcendence
measure (Burris et al., 1997).
The second experiment included 84 participants
(also psychology undergraduates who were somewhat
religious). There were three experimental conditions:
religious-affirmation condition, no-affirmation
condition, and a distraction condition. In the religiousaffirmation
condition, participants read the shooting
article (from the first experiment), completed a locus-ofcontrol
scale and a “Religious Life Inventory,” and then
completed a questionnaire on measures of affect. The
“Religious Life Inventory” is similar to the Religious
Background and Behaviors Questionnaire set forth by
Connors, Tonigan, and Miller (1996) which measures
the religious feelings and practices of a person. In the
no-affirmation condition, participants completed the
same measures, but in a different order (Burris et al.,
The authors of this study measured cognitive
dissonance in terms of Discomfort and Agitation as
measures of affect. Some participants were allowed to
reduce their dissonance by choosing transcendence and
religious affirmation in the treatment conditions of the
experiments. In both experiments, participants
experienced significant reduction in cognitive
dissonance (or Discomfort and Agitation) when they
chose to believe more strongly in their convictions, even
when faced with situations that made it hard to do so
(Burris et al., 1997).

Сперва я подумал, что речь шла о том, что те, которые не заполняли религиозного опросника, не могли сгладить диссонанс за счёт религии (откуда диссонанс вообще?), и в группах поэтому был разный уровень диссонанса. Но потом речь идёт о том, что там была разница в контексте того, стали ли они ещё более стойко держаться за свою религиозность, и у тех, что стали — диссонанс снизился. Зачем тогда другие группы, которые вообще религиозного опросника не заполняли, нужны были???

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